備忘メモ(Motor Learning and Control for Danceから)

まだ移動時間にざっくり読んだだけだけれど、ダンスの観点から運動学習(モーターラーニング)理論に取り組むための最初のリソースとの通り、人がどのように動きを学ぶかというメカニズムや、どのようにしたら学習や指導が効果的か、あるいは望ましいかというようなことについて、主にダンサーや指導者向けに必要と思われる基本的なところがまとめられている。

2015年の出版、まだ邦訳はされていないみたいなのが残念だが、ダンスを学ぶ学生、アーティスト、教師のために書かれているので、比較的読みやすい方かと。 

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以下は、今日読んだImplications for Technical Trainingからメモ。
子どもたちのバレエは、もっとゆっくりゆっくりで良いような…。

 

Consider the following time line, which is based on the motor development literature, as optimal in terms of the young child’s experience in dance classes. For dancers aged 3 and 4, the dance class content should be primarily creative play. It is an excellent way for the young child to expand physical capabilities while exploring imagination. For dancers aged 5 and 6, dance classes can begin to introduce the very beginning stages of technique, such as body part articulation, standing alignment, and basic locomotor steps. However, most dance classes for this age group should still involve creative movement. By the time the child is 7 or 8 years old, the emphasis of the class can begin to shift toward training in dance technique. Young dancers should have their first classes with time spent at the barre no earlier than this age, and creative play should still be incorporated into class on a regular basis. They can learn and accomplish basic dance vocabulary. In addition, they can begin to spend more time learning movement material set by the teacher but still be given time for creating their own dance material. By the time dancers reach 10 to 12 years old, classes can become more technique based as the need for skill acquisition increases. This is the age when most professional dance schools audition and accept dancers for elite training. Throughout adolescence it is not uncommon for dancers to spend many hours in highly structured classes learning elite skills. In ballet training a large portion of the class would be spent at the barre, and most of the work would be executed with the spine in vertical stance. It would benefit these adolescent dancers to continue exploring creative movement and use of the torso in nonvertical shapes in both stance and locomotion, regardless of the dance form they are learning. Because of the narrow base of support, pointe work demands not only strength and good alignment but also high levels of balancing skills. By ages 7 or 8, the three balancing systems have just achieved adultlike integration in the dancer. This is an ideal time to challenge the three systems for optimal development. Young dancers could benefit from spending time disrupting the visual and vestibular systems in simple ways, hence enhancing the sensorimotor system. In other words, positioning the head off the vertical (away from the upright position) and changing visual focus, even when traveling in space, could potentially create dancers with better proprioceptive responses and hence better balance. Further, because aspects of postural control continue developing throughout adolescence, teachers might want to consider continued challenges to all three systems. That is not to suggest that the traditional format of the dance class needs to change in any drastic way. Rather, it means that teachers may include simple additions to class content in order to assist dancers in coping with challenges to balance, especially when it is time for the dancers to go onstage and perform with reduced visual input from the effect of stage lighting. 

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その他、以下もDonna Krasnow, PhDの言葉が掲載された記事。
最後の「言葉」についてのお話は、所謂、内的集中/外的集中かな。

彼らが踊っている間に特定の筋肉にダンサーの注意を引くことは、一般に有益なアプローチではありません。運動の結果や目標を言い表し、脳に筋肉を選択させる方が良いです。

といったようなことが書かれているが、私自身も後者のタイプのレッスンが踊りやすかったのを思い出す。

Motor Learning In Dance

 

 

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今日の江の島は、春休みの学生さんや家族連れが多かった。

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